The Facts: Women and Pandemics
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact in Canada and around the world. Beyond the epidemiological effects, the outbreak of the disease impacts people and groups very differently.
“Across every sphere, from health to the economy, security to social protection, the impacts of COVID-19 are exacerbated for women and girls simply by virtue of their sex,” says a“With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic,” says the UN, “even the limited gains made in the past decades are at risk of being rolled back.” The has echoed this statement with its own, saying: “These disproportionate impacts could have long-term and far reaching consequences. If we are to restore momentum in our efforts to bring about gender equality in Canada, social and economic recovery efforts must take a feminist approach.”
We discuss how women and the organizations that serve them have been impacted by COVID-19 on our new podcast. Listen on Spotify or here.
The pandemic circumstances intensify inequalities related to gender, and other factors, such as economic status, race, culture, language, and other intersecting elements of our identities. It is important to understand the intersectional gendered implications of the pandemic, especially in the areas of, , , and
Frequently asked questions about women and the COVID-19 pandemic
- How do pandemics impact diverse women differently than men?
Peoples’ experiences of pandemics are grounded in longstanding social inequalities that impact all of us, every single day. Epidemiological analysis oninfection, recovery, and death rates is an ongoing process. According to the , more women have been diagnosed with COVID-19 than men and more women have died as a result. This could be due to the high number of women living in a nursing homes and seniors’ residences. This could also be due to factors such as the high ratio of women who work on the front lines of health services, caregiving, cleaning, and other essential roles where workers are at high risk of contracting the virus.
When it comes to the isolation measures imposed to prevent the spread of the virus, four keyfor women are:
- Increased risk of gender-based violence (See “Why is the pandemic linked to increased gender-based violence?”)
- More economic stress (See “How will the COVID-19 pandemic impact women economically in Canada?”)
- Increased burden of caregiving and housework
- Reduced access to support services
Women and girls who face intersecting barriers and discrimination may experience additional challenges related to the pandemic. These communities include:
First Nations, Métis and Inuit communities
Indigenous communities in Canada were disproportionately impacted by the in 2009, and that may indicate higher risks in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. Canada’s history of colonialism has meant that many Indigenous communities experience a number of barriers to health and safety, including overcrowding, isolation, declining infrastructure, limited Internet access. Indigenous women and girls also face a higher risk of , which may be exacerbated by isolation measures. Many Indigenous communities have closed their borders to prevent the spread of COVID-19, given the disproportionate risks they face.
East Asian communities
With the spread of the COVID-19 virus, people in Canada’s East Asian communities began experiencing more Some business owners have reported due to stigma around the illness. Various incidents have prompted a coalition of to call on the federal government to take action to prevent anti-Asian discrimination and hate crimes.
Canada doesn’t yet track as part of its data collection around COVID-19. But some provinces, including and are beginning to do so. Still, we are not yet equipped to understand how Black communities and other racialized communities are being impacted differently, and it represents a serious gap in our capacity to respond to the virus and save lives with tailored solutions.
In some areas of the U.S., thehas been disproportionately high in African-American communities, which is linked to systemic barriers to health care and economic opportunities.
In Canada, there areon government and health authorities for improved collection of race-based health data.
Women workers identifying as South Asian (at 20.4%), Arab (at 20.3%), and Black (at 18.6%) all reported higher rates of unemployment than non-racialized workers (9.3%) in . Relatively narrow prior to COVID-19, the overall employment gap between racialized and non-racialized groups has grown to .
Immigrant women represented one-quarter of all female workers over age 15 (26.1%) in February, but almost half of employment losses as of mid-July (45.0%). Women who are recent immigrants lost work quickly and deeply and are recovering it slowly. By April, 20% of recent immigrant women who had been employed in March were no longer employed, seven percentage points higher than among Canadian-born women, a result in part of their higher concentration in low-wage, short-tenured jobs. New research shows that they experienced a higher rate of transition to “non-employment” throughout the lockdown and a lower rate of transition to “employment” as of .
Women living with disabilities
Women with disabilities may be at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 due to, for example, an inability to practice social distancing because of There may also be more barriers to practicing hygiene recommended prevention measures.
Senior and elderly women
Multiple at long-term care homes in Canada have highlighted systemic gaps that senior and elderly women may face in such facilities, particularly related to adequate staffing and oversight.
There is significant concern among Canadians about both the quality (79 per cent) and safety (77 per cent) of our long-term health facilities, suggests the Canadian Women’s Foundation’s National Opinion Survey: Public Concern about COVID-19’s Impact on Women, July 2020. Concern is particularly high in Ontario, and 71 per cent are concerned about family members in long-term care facilities as they stand today.
- 91% agree that standards and oversight of long-term care facilities in Canada must be improved as soon as possible
- 85% agree that we need to prioritize funding for long-term care in Canada.
- 84% agree that we need a complete overhaul of long-term care.
The digital divide and other barriers to online services and information
Increased reliance on digital resources during the pandemic may leave some women and girls behind. Access to technology and digital resources is important not only for updates about the virus, isolation measures, and how to access government aid, but it’s also become a necessity for employment and education while in isolation.
- There’s a for those living in rural and remote areas of Canada, where communities have less reliable Internet and cellular service.
- People living on a low income may not have personal access to computers or mobile devices, particularly when multiple family members all need access at the same time for work and school. Those who previously relied on public resources like libraries for digital access can no longer do so.
- Senior and elderly women may be less familiar and comfortable with using digital resources to access information and resources related to the pandemic. In Calgary, was set up specifically to serve seniors during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Those living with disabilities, such as vision or hearing limitations, may not be provided with COVID-19 updates in an such as closed captioning.
- How concerned are Canadians about the impact of the pandemic on women?
In August 2020, the Canadian Women’s Foundation released the results of ahighlighting public concern over the social and economic fallout of COVID-19 on women. The poll indicated that:
- Sixty per cent of Canadians would like to see government recovery plans specifically address the unique impacts of the pandemic on women (70 per cent of women, 49 per cent of men). To that end, the Foundation has developed a series of containing recommendations for building a gender-equal Canada in pandemic recovery efforts.
- 71 per cent are concerned that women are at higher risk of experiencing violence due to home isolation during the pandemic.
- 63 per cent are concerned that women face more exposure to COVID-19 given their representation in high-risk service and care industries (including grocery stores, nursing, personal support work).
- 59 per cent are concerned that women in Canada are at higher risk than men of losing their jobs due to the impact of COVID-19 on the economy.
There is also significant concern about both the quality (79 per cent) and safety (77 per cent) of our long-term health facilities, particularly in Ontario, and 71 per cent are concerned about family members in long-term care facilities as they stand today. It’s been reported thatof residents in nursing homes.
- 91 per cent of Canadians agree that standards and oversight of long-term care facilities in Canada must be improved as soon as possible.
- 85 per cent agree that we need to prioritize funding for long-term care in Canada.
- 84 per cent agree that we need a complete overhaul of long-term care.
- Why is the COVID-19 pandemic linked to increased gender-based violence?
The COVID-19 pandemic has been linked to spikes inreports and crisis calls in China, France, and the U.K. This echoes what has happened in past .
In Canada, women’s shelters and organizations have also sounded alarms about the risk of increased violence. The Ontario Association of Interval and Transition Houses, for example, says 20 per cent of the 70 shelters it represents have had increasedduring the pandemic. Some police services are also noticing more One in 10 women is very or extremely concerned about the in the home, suggests a Statistics Canada survey about COVID-19.
Rates ofwere high in Canada, even before the pandemic: on average, every six days, a woman is killed by her intimate partner. Thousands of women, girls, and trans and non-binary people now face a at home with COVID-19 isolation measures, whether it takes the form of emotional, physical or
Whereof gender-based violence at home already exist, like a sense of control, possessive jealousy, and misogynistic attitudes, various can become triggers, including:
- job losses and reduced income
- food insecurity
- fears about contracting the virus
- exacerbated mental health issues
- disrupted family routines, services, and resources
Quarantines and social isolation mean that abusers and those they harm are in close proximity around the clock and other people aren’t around to see the signs of violence and intervene.
Social isolation alsofor those experiencing abuse or violence to access services from shelters, sexual assault centres, and other community supports, which have while facing many new challenges. Under normal circumstances, it’s difficult for women in abusive relationships to confidentially reach out for help, but the pandemic-related circumstances have made it even harder.
In light of this, it’s important to know abouta simple one-handed sign someone can use on a video call. It can help a person silently show they need help and want someone to check in with them in a safe way. about the signal and how to respond should you receive it.
While theand have announced emergency funding for women’s shelters and other services for those who experience gender-based violence, we know more funding is urgently needed. Services for violence prevention and intervention were already struggling to meet needs before the arrival of COVID-19, particularly in the wake of the and the Globe and Mail’s Unfounded investigation.
- How do women’s roles in the workforce put them on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada?
Women remain highly concentrated in professional roles that put them on the front lines of both health care and jobs considered essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The three industries with the highest ratio of women versus men in Canada are health care and social assistance (82.4 per cent), educational services (69.3 per cent), and accommodation and food services (58.5 per cent),In 2015, “around 56 per cent of women were employed in occupations involving the ‘5 Cs’: caring, clerical, catering, cashiering and cleaning.”
Women health-care workers — including doctors, nurses, and paid caregivers — don’t haveof isolating at home because we’re depending on them to deliver care. The vast majority of those in the following health-care roles are women: nurses, medical lab technicians, respiratory therapists, and personal support workers. Women who work as cleaners, cashiers, and food-service workers also continue to play key roles in serving the public at grocery stores, drug stores, pharmacies, and other essential businesses and services that remain open during the pandemic.
It has also been reported that gender bias in the design ofmay make it less effective for them, and hamper their work. Given that the equipment may be designed with men’s bodies and proportions in mind, women may find that the equipment doesn’t fit or work well.
- How will the COVID-19 pandemic impact women economically in Canada?
Given that women are concentrated in sectors and industries hardest hit by isolation measures, aof women lost their jobs in the early stages of the pandemic.
of the 1 million jobs lost as of March 2020, and 70% of losses by workers aged 25 to 54. As construction and manufacturing shut down in April, a sharp increase in men’s unemployment narrowed, but did not close the gender gap in employment loss. At the end of July, in all age groups, the recovery among men remained more advanced. Women had recouped roughly half of February-April employment losses (53.7%), and those aged 25–54 saw the largest gains. Women’s job growth has been mostly in part-time work, regaining less than one-third of full-time job losses (31.0%) by July’s end. A summer boost in part-time work in hard-hit industries such as retail and food services spurred employment among low wage women workers, but their continues to be slower than that of higher paid employees, lagging behind by more than 15 percentage points (81.8% vs. 97.4%).
Single-parent mothers were more likely than mothers in two-parent families to have experienced job loss or reduced hours: more than a third (37.6%) compared to just over one quarter (25.7%) respectively,. In , 202,000 single mothers were in the paid labour market, and another 122,000 were facing significant obstacles to employment, including access to childcare. By June, single-parent mothers had recovered only 23% of their hours, and those with kids under the age of six had recouped only 19.6% of pandemic employment losses.
With travel shut down,have hit women working as flight attendants, cooks, servers, and cleaners in travel and hospitality. As stores have closed or reduced hours, there have been for retail workers, are also women. Aside from industries shut down by COVID-19, women also make up the majority of Canada’s and These positions are precarious at the best of times.
The pandemic is intensifyingwomen already face throughout Canada, and research suggests that, long term, pandemics can take a higher toll on than men’s.
Poverty in Canada is already gendered. Women make up 60 per cent of those in Canada who aremeaning that they report difficulty covering basic expenses and may need pay day loans or food banks to get by.
The COVID-19 pandemic means new challenges to delivering support services for those who are struggling, such asthat can’t meet demand, and closures of public services including schools, community centres, and libraries.
Although federal and provincial aid andare encouraging, many women are still at risk of falling through the cracks.
- How are women leaders playing a role in Canada’s response to COVID-19?
Women in leadership positions have takenin the response to COVID-19 in Canada and internationally. Some of them, such as Canada’s 10 , have quickly become household names.
At the same time, it’s important to remember that there are many women leaders who, but they are also on the front lines of the COVID-19 response, making difficult decisions and taking action, including nurses, community-service providers, elder-care workers, and store clerks. These essential roles are often carried out by diverse women, and they are in practical leadership roles in our neighbourhoods, at risk to themselves and their families.
Although women remainin formal leadership roles in Canada, it’s not surprising that in Canada’s response to COVID-19 has been applauded. There is significant research to suggest that inclusive leadership leads to greater success; both gender and racial diversity are correlated with
There are many reasons why women’s leadership through the pandemic has the potential to blaze new trails:
- The emergence of diverse role models, particularly in the STEM arena, can motivate other women and girls to pursue these roles.
- More diversity in leadership helps to break down stereotypes about who and what makes a good leader.
- When more diverse women are involved decision-making processes, they’re in a position to bring a stronger gender lens to the process.
- How is the COVID-19 pandemic impacting women’s mental health?
Surveys conducted at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that women in Canada were carrying a bigger burden of worry about the situation than men.
Forty-nine per cent of women reported feeling “very worried” about the outbreak, compared to 33 per cent of men, indicated a poll byThe data also showed that men were less likely to follow the advice of public health officials around staying home and social distancing.
Seventy-five per cent of female respondents were afraid of a family member contracting the virus, compared to 64 per cent of men, suggested an opinion survey by
An April 2020 survey bysuggested that more women than men reported feeling anxious or nervous very often or often due to the pandemic, and that more women than men reported difficulty sleeping very often or often since the beginning of the pandemic.
- How is the Canadian Women’s Foundation responding to the COVID-19 pandemic?
The Foundation launched the Tireless Together Fund: a national emergency fund to provide critical support to women and girls through the COVID-19 crisis.
The Foundation is also working with the Government of Canada to deliver emergency funding to some services, and advocating for a gender lens on policies implemented during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.
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